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Anbay : The God of Justice


At a glance

Origin Arabian Mythology
Classification Gods
Family Members N/A
Region Yemen
Associated With Justice, Record Keeping



Anbay was a pre-Islamic god who was worshipped in Qataban, Yemen. He was regarded as a god of justice and an oracle and was believed to be in the service of the moon god Amm. He was responsible for taking decisions on many of the legal matters and paperwork and is often mentioned with another god of justice, Haukim.

Scholars have also claimed that Anbay could also be a real life figure who served in the courts of one of the ancient Persian or Sumerian kingdoms. This is because the written accounts that remain tend to humanise Anbay quite a bit where his activities are synonymous with the activities of a minister at court.

Physical Traits

Not much is known about the physical characteristics of Anbay as the growth of Islam which prohibited idol worship lead to the complete destruction and organised erasure of all previous religions. A few sculptures that experts believe to be of the god have shown him to have the physical characteristics of an average person from the era. He is sometimes depicted as holding a ledger or a sheaf of papers.

Other Names

In Qataban, the names Anbay and Hawkam/Haukim are used together as the gods of command and decision. They probably represent the same aspect like the concept of day and night. The name Anbay is considered to be a derivative of the Babylonian god Nabu.

Powers and Abilities

Anbay was an oracular god of Qataban and also the spokesman of Amm. His name was invoked in royal regulations regarding water supply and legal matters like building or property registrations.

Modern Day Influence

With the spread of Islam in the region, the pre Islamic deities have been completely wiped out with hardly anyone practicing their ancestral religions for the fear of being branded as an apostate and being charged with blasphemy and sacrilege.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Who was Anbay?

Anbay is a deity from the ancient Arabian pantheon, worshipped by some pre-Islamic tribes. Little is known about Anbay, but he was likely associated with natural elements or fertility. With the advent of Islam, worship of Anbay and other pagan gods was replaced by monotheistic belief in Allah.

Where was Anbay worshipped?

In ancient Yemen, the god Anbay was widely worshipped. The worship of Anbay persisted until the spread of Islam in the region

Who converted Yemen to Islam?

Yemen was gradually converted to Islam primarily through the efforts of Muslim missionaries and traders following the emergence of Islam in the early 7th century. The process of conversion was not instantaneous but occurred over several decades, beginning with the mission of the Prophet Muhammad’s companions and continuing through subsequent caliphates.


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